About the Sultan Mehmed II –
Sultan Muhammad Fatih conqueror Of Constantinople ( محمد ثانى, romanized: Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern: II. Mehmet, pronounced ( 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled from August 1444 to September 1446, and then later from February 1451 to May 1481. In Mehmed II’s first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged. When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople.
Mehmed II was born as a son of Sultan Murad I and Huma Hatun on the night of 29th bound to 30th March 1432, in Edirne. His early childhood passed on Edirne for a while. He was motivated for taking the city of Constantinople by Prophet Hz Muhammed’s words for the conqueror of Constantinople decades ago; “One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!”
Recognition of Faith –
Sultan Muhammad Fatih conqueror Of Constantinople overthrew the Byzantine Empire by conquering Constantinople as consolidating the Ottoman Empire and marking the end of the Middle Ages. He took the name “conqueror” (Fatih) after the conquest of Istanbul on 29th May 1453. The conquest of Istanbul spelt the end of the Byzantine Empire and entered a phase of urban revival under the wise and tolerant administrations of Mehmed and his immediate successors.
He ruled the Ottoman Empire for 30 years and joined 25 campaigns himself. He was a very strict statesman and a very brave soldier. The great emperor had died on 3rd May 1481 and he was buried in “Fatih Turbesi” (tomb), near the Mosque of Fatih in Istanbul. After the Sultan’s death, the Ottoman Empire remained culturally and geographically strong.
Biography of Sultan Mehmed Fatih of Constantinople –
Mehmed II Fatih of Constantinople also known as The Conqueror is one of the famous sultans of the Ottoman Empire with his intelligence. Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father. After that time Sultan Murad II renounced the throne but when he died Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. Mehmet II was a genius statesman and a military leader who was also interested in literature, fine arts, and monumental architecture. He was educated by famous scholar Aksemseddin and according to Ottoman historians, he was speaking seven languages fluently.
Mehmed II Fatih of Constantinople was born as a son of Sultan Murad I and Huma Hatun on the night of 29th bound to 30th March 1432, in Edirne. His early childhood passed on Edirne for a while.
Mehmed II was motivated for taking the city of Constantinople by Prophet Hz Muhammed’s words for the conqueror of Constantinople decades ago; “One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!” Sultan Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire by conquering Constantinople as consolidating the Ottoman Empire and marking the end of the Middle Ages.
He took the name “conqueror” (Fatih) after the conquest of Istanbul on 29th May 1453. The conquest of Istanbul spelt the end of the Byzantine Empire and entered a phase of urban revival under the wise and tolerant administrations of Mehmed and his immediate successors.
Sultan Muhammad Fatih The conqueror Of Constantinople –
The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Army, under the command of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on 29th May 1453. With this conquest Ottomans became an Empire and one of the most powerful empires, The Eastern Roman Empire fell and lasted. After the Constantinople conquest, 21 years old Ottoman Sultan Muhammad Fatih conqueror Of Constantinople also took the title “The Conqueror” added to his name.
Although his early age, Sultan II Mehmed started to prepare siege for İstanbul. He wanted to be the commander as Prophet Hz Muhammed mentioned the conqueror of Constantinople; “One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!” decades ago. First, he took precautions with strategic tactics both inside and outside of the state. After this, he moved to conquer Constantinople.
Constantinople had been imperial for many years. The city was bombarded by cannon fires which were designed by Mehmed the Second himself. Constantinople had been attacked in the past many times, but its great walls always prevailed. Sultan Mehmed, II changed this with the use of cannons forever. Sultan’s massive cannon fired on the walls for weeks.
Baltaoglu Suleyman Bey launched the first attack to enter the Golden Horn gulf on 9th April 1453 and failed to break the chains which were placed at the mouth of the horn. This chain, which floated on wooden logs, was strong enough to prevent any Ottoman ship from entering Golden Horn. The victory of the Pope’s Christian and Genoese ships decreased the morale of the Ottoman army.
During this chaos and widespread feeling of loss, the Sultan’s spiritual mentor Aksemseddin promised certain success about the conquest. Sultan Mehmed improved a new type of cannon as called “humbara”, today is known as “howitzer” which is taken an aim for shooting the target. It is an important discovery for the world’s army history. Cannons were not enough to take the city. Encouraged by spiritual support, Sultan II Mehmed, decided to plan for his navy.
The Ottoman fleet anchored in Dolmabahce would be moved to the Golden Horn gulf by land as an element of surprise. Several ships and galleys carried by soldiers via rope were slid over slipways. On the morning of 22nd April, Eastern Roman Empire woke up with surprise and terrified when they saw Ottoman galleys in the horn.
On 29th May, the Ottoman army attacked for the final assault. The siege lasted from Friday, 6 April 1453 until 29 May 1453 Tuesday when the city was conquered by the Ottomans under the command of Sultan II. Mehmed. A new era started on the world and a new balance came through by the conquest of Constantinople.
started on the world and a new balance came through by the conquest of Constantinople.
List of campaigns –
|1||Karaman||1451||The Karaman attacked Ottoman territory after Mehmed became the sultan. In response sultan Mehmed made his first campaign against Karaman. The Karamanids were defeated and Ibrahim II of Karaman promised not to attack the Ottomans again and so peace was restored.|
|2||Constantinople||1453||While sultan Mehmed was on his campaign against Karaman, the Byzantine emperor Constantinople XI demanded an increase of the annual allowance to an Ottoman pretender in Constantinople. Mehmed refused and prepared to besiege Constantinople. He ordered the construction of the Rumeli Hisar after which the siege of the city began. The city was conquered following a siege lasting 53 days. The Byzantine Empire ceased to exist and the city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.|
|3||Serbia||1454-55||Mehmed led a campaign against Serbia because the Serbian ruler Durand Brankovic refused to send tribute and made an alliance with the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ottoman army conquered the important mining city of Novo Brdo.|
|4||Serbia||1456||Mehmed continued his campaign in Serbia, numerous castles were captured but the Siege of Belgrade was unsuccessful and the Ottoman army retreated.|
|5||Serbia||1458-59||After the death of the Serbian ruler Durand Brankovic a succession war broke out and the sultan who was related to the Serbian kings invaded the area. Smederevo was captured and the Serbian Despotate ended and was annexed to the Ottoman Empire.|
|6||Morea||1458-59||The Despotate of Morea refused to pay its annual tribute and revolted. In response, Mehmed led a campaign into Morea. The inhabitants were defeated and their territories were annexed into the Ottoman Empire.|
|7||Amasra||1460||Amasra the most important fortress of the Genoese on the Black Sea coast, was besieged and captured.|
|8||Sinop||1461||Mehmed led a campaign against Trebizond and on the way annexed the entire Black Sea coast to the Ottoman Empire ending the reign of the Jandarids peacefully.|
|9||Trebizond||1461||After the emperor of the Empire of Trebizond refused to pay tribute and made an alliance with the Akkoyunlu Mehmed led a campaign against Trebizond by land and sea. After a siege of more than 32 days, Trebizond and the emperor surrendered and the Empire came to an end.|
|10||Wallachia||1462||Vlad the impaler who with Ottoman help had become the Ottoman vassal ruler of Wallachia refused to pay tribute after some years and invaded the Ottoman territory in northern Bulgaria. At that point, Mehmed, with the main Ottoman army, was on the Trebizond campaign in Asia. When Mehmed returned from his Trebizond campaign he led a campaign against Wallachia. Vlad fled after some resistance to Hungary. Mehmed first made Wallachia an Ottoman eyalet but then appointed Vlad’s brother Radu as a vassal ruler.|
|11||Lesbos||1462||The island of Lesbos was captured following a siege of its capital, Mytilene. and annexed.|
|12||Bosnia||1463-64||Mehmed led a campaign against the kingdom of Bosnia and annexed it to the Ottoman Empire.|
|13||Morea||1463||Mehmed led a campaign in Morea, which ended with the annexation of theDespotate of Morea.|
|14||Albania||1466-67||Mehmed led a campaign against Albania and besieged Kruje. but Albanian soldiers under Skanderbeg resisted successfully.|
|15||Karaman||1468||After the death of the ruler of Karamanids, a civil war began among his sons in which Uzun Hasan. ruler of the Akkoyunlu also became involved. After some time Mehmed marched into the area and annexed the Karamanids to the Ottoman Empire.|
|16||Negroponte||1470||During the long Ottomon-Venetian war. Mehmed led a campaign against the Venetian colony of Negroponte and after a siege annexed the region to the Ottoman Empire|
|17||Eastern Anatolia||1473||After many years of hostility, Mehmed invaded the lands of the Akkoyunlu and defeated their ruler, Uzun Hasan. in the Battle of Otlukbeli. after which they did not pose a threat against the Ottomans anymore.|
|18||Moldavia||1476||Stephen III Moldavia attacked Wallachia. an Ottoman vassal, and refused to pay the annual tribute. An Ottoman army was defeated and Mehmed led a personal campaign against Moldavia. He defeated the Moldavians in the Battle of Valea Alba. after that they accepted to pay the tribute and the peace was restored.|
|19||Albania||1478||During the long Ottoman-Venetian war Mehmed invaded Albania and besieged the Venetian fortress of Shkodra. The war ended in Venetian defeat and Shkodra was surrendered to the Ottomans in accordance with the Treaty of Constantinople (1479).|
The Code –
One of the most important developments in the Mehmed II Era in Ottoman, was the Code of Law (Kanunname) which commanded establishing various organizational positions, produce a form of law that suited the growing empire’s geography and state organizations after the conquest of Constantinople.
It is always argued that The Code of Sultan Mehmed’s legalizing fratricide. A policy of royal fratricide was introduced by Sultan Mehmet II whose grandfather Mehmed I had to fight a bloody civil war against his brothers to take the Ottoman throne. As in the Sultan Mehmed II Code, the majority of the Ottoman scholars permitted it as well. Sultan’s Code defended fratricide this code as using for the continuation of the unity of the state and prosperity of people. In his codes, Mehmed clearly legitimized a sultan’s executing his brothers for the sake of the imperial order.
Sultan II Mehmed’s Fratricide Code in Turkish as in the below:
“Ve her kimesneye evlâdımdan saltanat müyesser ola, karındaşların nizâm-ı âlem içün katl itmek münâsibdir. Ekser ulemâ dahi tecviz etmişlerdir. Anınla âmil olalar”
By his “Code” Sultan Mehmed II Fatih of Constantinople created new law codes dealing with administrative and criminal justice, military affairs, the discipline of statemen, and the organization order for religious hierarchy.