Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A (2 November 682 – 5 February 720), generally often called Umar II, was the eighth Umayyad Calipha, ruling from 22 September 717 till his dying in 720. Umar R.A made varied important contributions and reforms to society. And he has been described as “the most pious and devout” of the Umayyad rulers and was typically known as the primary Mujaddid and the fifth righteous Caliph of Islam.
He is taken into account one of many most interesting rulers in Muslim historical past. Second solely to the 4 rightly guided caliphs — Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (RA). In truth, in some circles, he’s affectionately known as the fifth and the final caliph of Islam.
Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A Ruling Time
Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A. dominated as a caliph for under 30 months however throughout this brief interval he modified the world. His tenure was the brightest interval within the 92-year historical past of the Umayyad Caliphate. He was the son of Abdul Aziz bin Marwan, the governor of Egypt whereas his mom. Umm-i-Aasim was the granddaughter of Caliph Umar Ibn Al Khattab.
Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A. As Governor Of Madina
Al-Walid’s intention was to make use of Umar to reconcile the townspeople of Medina to Umayyad rule. And “obliterate the evil memory” of the previous Umayyad governors, particularly Hisham ibn Isma’il al-Makhzumi. Whose rule over Medina had been harsh to its inhabitants.
Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A. tolerated many of those students’ vocal criticism of the Umayyad authorities conduct. However, different accounts maintain that he confirmed himself to be materialistic throughout his early profession. On al-Walid’s orders, Umar undertook the reconstruction and enlargement of the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina starting in 707.
After being nominated caliph, Umar addressed the individuals from the pulpit saying: “O individuals, I’ve been nominated your caliph regardless of my unwillingness and without your consent. So right here I’m, I relieve you of your pledge (bayat) that you’ve taken for my allegiance. Elect whomsoever you discover appropriate as your caliph.” People shouted: “O Umar, we’ve got full religion in you and we would like you as our caliph.” Umar continued, “O people, obey me as long as I obey Allah; and if I disobey Allah, you are not duty-bound to obey me.”
Living Standard AS Calipha
Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A. was extraordinarily pious and averse to worldly luxuries. He most well-liked simplicity to extravagance. And deposited all property and wealth meant for the ruling caliph into the Bait Al Maal. He even deserted the royal palace and most well-liked to reside in a modest home. He wore tough garments as an alternative of royal robes and sometimes went unrecognized in public like his nice grandfather Caliph Umar ibn Al Khattab R.A.
After his appointment as caliph, he discarded all of the pompous appendages of princely life-servants, slaves, maids, horses, palaces, golden robes and actual estates and returned them to Bait Al Maal. He additionally requested his spouse Fatima to return the jewellery she had acquired from her father Caliph Abdul Malik. The devoted spouse complied together with his bidding and deposited all of it within the Bait Al Maal. Later, he obtained his articles of luxurious auctioned for 23,000 dinars and spent the quantity for charitable functions.”
He by no means constructed home of his personal. Allama Suyuti in his historic work “Tarikh Al Khulafaa” information that Umar spent solely two dirhams a day when he was caliph. He acquired a lesser wage than his subordinates.
His non-public properties yielded earnings of fifty,000 dinars yearly earlier than his nomination. But when he returned all his properties to the Bait Al Maal, his non-public earnings was decreased to 200 dinars each year. This was his wealth when he was commanding the huge Caliphate from the borders of France within the West to the borders of China within the East.
Hazrat Umar ibn Abd-al-Aziz R.A. Following PROPHET (PBUH) Path
Umar is credited with having ordered the primary assortment of Hadith, in an official method, fearing that a few of it could be misplaced. Umar despatched out emissaries to China and Tibet, inviting their rulers to embrace Islam. It was throughout the time of Umar that Islam took roots and was accepted by a big section of the inhabitants of Persia and Egypt.
When the officers complained that due to conversions, the jizya revenues of the state had skilled a steep decline, Umar wrote again saying that “Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was despatched as a prophet (to ask the individuals to Islam) and never as a tax collector.”
He abolished dwelling tax, marriage tax, stamp tax and lots of different taxes as nicely. When a lot of his brokers wrote that his fiscal reforms in favour of recent converts would deplete the Treasury, he replied, “Glad would I be, by Allah, to see everyone develop into Muslim.
An Imporatant Anecdote
The basic princely class of that point couldn’t digest these insurance policies of justice, simplicity and equality. A slave of the caliph was bribed to manage the lethal poison to him. The caliph having felt the impact of the poison despatched for the slave and requested him why he had poisoned him. The slave replied that he was given 1,000 dinars for the job.
The caliph took the quantity from him and deposited it in Bait Al Maal. Freeing the slave he requested him to go away the place instantly, lest anybody would possibly kill him. This was his final deposit within the Bait Al-Maal for the welfare of Muslims.
More About Khalid ibn al-Walid R.A
Death And Legacy
Umar died in Rajab 101 AH on the age of 38 in a rented home on the place known as Dair Sim’aan close to Homs. He was buried in Dair Sim’aan on a chunk of land he had bought from a Christian. He reportedly left behind solely 17 dinars with a will that out of this quantity the hire of the home through which he died and the worth of the land through which he was buried could be paid. And thus departed the good soul from the world.
Umar was pious and dominated like a real Muslim in singular opposition to the opposite Umayyad caliphs.
He Was usually thought-about “godless usurpers, tyrants and playboys”. The custom acknowledged Umar as a genuine caliph, whereas the opposite Umayyads had been considered as kings.
May Almighty Allah relaxation his soul in peace and award him the perfect place in Paradise.