About Muhammad Bin Qasim RH –
Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695 AD. He belonged to the Saqqafi tribe; which had originated from Taif in Arabia. He grew up within the care of his mom; he quickly turned a terrific asset to his uncle Muhammad Ibn Yusuf, the governor of Yemen. His judgment, potential and expertise left many different officers and compelled the ruler to nominate him within the state division. He was additionally an in-depth relative of Hajjaj bin Yousuf. The younger Muhammad bin Qasim was appointed the governor of Persia in his teenage. And he crushed the rise up in that area. There can be a well-liked custom that presents him because of the son-in-law of Hajjaj bin Yousuf. He conquered the Sindh and Punjab areas alongside the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Reason For Conquest Of Sindh (Hind) –
There are each lengthy and brief time period causes for the conquest of India. Arabs had commerce with India and Eastern Asia. The commerce was carried via sea route; the route was unsafe as a result of the plunder of the Pirates of Sindh. The Arab rebels additionally get refuge in Sindh. Thus the Umayyad wished to consolidate their rule and in addition to safe the commerce route. During Hajjaj’s governorship, the Mids of Debal (Pirates) plundered the items of Ceylon’s ruler to Hijjaj and attacked ships of Arab. This ship carrying the orphans and widows of Muslim troopers who died in Sri Lanka. Thus offering the Umayyad Caliphate the official trigger, that enabled them to realize a foothold within the Makran, and Sindh areas.
Conquest Of Sindh (Hind) By Muhammad Bin Qasim –
The Umayyad caliphate ordered Muhammad Bin Qasim to assault Sindh. He led 6,000 Syrian cavalries and on the borders of Sindh. He was joined by an advance guard and 6 thousand camel riders and with 5 catapults (Manjaniks). Muhammad Bin Qasim first captured Debal, from the place the Arab military marched alongside the Indus. At Rohri he was met by Dahir’s forces. Dahir died in the battle, his forces have been defeated and Muhammad bin Qasim took management of Sind. Mohammad Bin Qasim entered Daibul in 712 AD. As a result of his efforts, he succeeded in capturing Diablo. He continued his Victorious Progress in succession, Nirun, fortress (referred to as Sikka), Brahmanabad, Alor, Multan and Gujrat.
After the conquest of Multan, he carried his arms to the borders of the Kingdom of Kashmir, however, his dismissal stopped the additional advance. Now Muslims have been the masters of the entire Sindh and part of Punjab as much as the borders of Kashmir within the north. After the conquest, he adopted a conciliatory coverage, asking for acceptance of Muslim rule by the natives in return for non-interference of their non-secular and cultural practices. He additionally established peace with a powerful taxation system. In return, he supplied the warranty of safety of life and property for the natives.
Military and political strategy –
The army technique had been outlined by Al-Hajjaj in a letter despatched to Muhammad bin Qasim –
‘‘My ruling is given: Kill anyone belonging to the ahl-i-harb (combatants); arrest their sons and daughters for hostages and imprison them. Whoever does not fight against us…grant them aman (safety) and settle their tribute (amwal) as dhimmah (protected person)…’’
The Arabs’ first concern was to facilitate the conquest of Sindh with the fewest casualties whereas additionally making an attempt to protect the financial infrastructure. Towns got two choices: undergo Islamic authority peacefully or be attacked by power. The seize of cities often completed via a treaty with a celebration from among the many enemies. There have been two sorts of such treaties, “Sulh” or “ahd-e-wasiq (capitulation)” and “aman (surrender/ peace)”.Muhammad bin Qasim carried out executions of ahl-i-harb (combating males) as a part of his army technique, whose surviving dependents have been enslaved.
Hajjaj died in 714. When Walid Bin Abdul Malik died, his youthful brother Suleman succeeded because of the Caliph. He was a bitter enemy of Hajjaj’s household. He recalled Mohammad Bin Qasim from Sindh, who obeyed the orders because of the obligation of a basic. His death on the 18th of July, 715AD on the age of twenty.