Tariq Ibn Ziyad conquest of Spain – who led the Muslims

Tariq ibn Ziyad
طارق بن زياد
Place of deathDamascus, ash-Sham
Buried atDamascus , Syria
AllegianceUmayyad Caliphate
Battles/warsConquest of Hispania
Battle of Guadalete  
Other workGovernor of Al-Andalus

About The Tariq Ibn Ziyad conquest of Spain –

The Great Muslim General Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād also spelt Tarik Ibn Zeyad, (died c. 720), the general who led the Muslim conquest of Spain. Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād (Arabic طارق بن زياد‎) also known simply as Tarik in English, was Umayyad commander who initiated the Muslim conquest of Visigothic Hispania  (Present-day Spain and Portugal) in 711–718 A.D. He led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, Consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar. The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning “Mountain of Tariq”. which is named after him.

Tariq ibn Ziyad

Origins about Tariq Ibn Ziyad conquest of spain –

Most medieval historians give little or no information about Tariq’s origins or nationality. Ibn ‘Abd al-Hakam, Ibn al-Athir, Al-Tabari, and Ibn Khaldun do not say anything and have been followed in this by modern works such as The Encyclopedia of Islam and Cambridge History of Islam. There different accounts given by a few Arabic histories which all seem to date from between 400 and 500 years after Tariq’s time. These are that – He was a Persian from Hamadan.

He was an Arab member, or freedman of the Sadif clan of the Kindah.

 – He was a Berber from North Africa.

Even here there are several different versions. And modern workers who accept a Berber origin tend to settle on one version or another without giving any reason for so doing. The Berber tribes associated with these ancestries (Zenata, Walhāṣ, Warfajūma, Nafzā) were, in Tariq’s time, all resident in Tripolitania.

– The earliest reference seems to be the 12th-century geographer al-Idrisi, who referred to as Tariq bin Abd ‘Allah bin Wanamū al-Zanātī, without the usual bin Ziyad.

– The 14th-century historian Ibn Idhari gives two versions of Tariq’s ancestry (the differences may be caused by copyist errors). He is referred to as Tāriq bin Zīyād bin Abd ‘Allah bin Walghū bin Warfajūm bin Nabarghāsan bin Walhāṣ bin Yaṭūfat bin Nafzāw (Arabic language: طارق بن زياد بن عبد الله بن ولغو بن ورفجوم بن نبرغاسن بن ولهاص بن يطوفت بن نفزاو‎) and also as Tāriq bin Zīyād bin Abd’ Allah bin Rafhū bin Warfajūm bin Yanzghāsan bin Walhāṣ bin Yaṭūfat bin Nafzāw (Arabic language: طارق بن زياد بن عبد الله بن رفهو بن ورفجوم بن ينزغاسن بن ولهاص بن يطوفت بن نفزاو‎).

Most historians, Arab and Spanish, seem to agree that he was a slave of the emir of Ifriqiya (North Africa), Musa bin Nusayr. who gave him his freedom and appointed him a general in his army. But his descendants centuries later denied he had ever been Musa’s slave.

History ( Tariq Ibn Ziyad Conquest of spain, ( Battle of Guadalete )- 

Musa ibn Nusayr appointed Ṭāriq governor of Tangier, after its conquest in 710-711 according to Ibn Abd al-Hakam (803-871), But an unconquered Visigothic outpost remained nearby at Ceuta. A stronghold commanded by a nobleman named Julian, Count of Ceuta.

After Roderic came to power in Spain. Julian had as custom, sent his daughter, Florinda la Cava, to the court of the Visigothic king for education. It is said that Roderic raped her. And that Julian so incensed he resolved to have the Muslims bring down the Visigothic kingdom. Accordingly, he entered into a treaty with Ṭāriq (Mūsā having returned to Qayrawan) to secretly convey the Muslim army. As he owned a number of merchant ships and had his own forts on the Spanish mainland.

Tariq’s army contained about 7,000 Berber horsemen. And Mūsā is said to have sent an additional 5,000 reinforcements after the conquest. Roderic, to meet the threat of the Berbers, assembled an army said to number 100,000. Most of the army commanded by, And loyal to the sons of Wittiza, whom Roderic had brutally deposed. At the conquest of Spain Ṭāriq won a decisive victory when Roderic defeated and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete.

Tariq split his army into four divisions. which went on to capture Córdoba under Mughith al-Rumi, Granada, And other places, while he remained at the head of the division which captured Toledo. Afterward, he continued advancing towards the north, reaching Guadalajara and Astorga. Ṭāriq was de facto governor of Hispania until the arrival of Mūsā a year later.

Sultan Mehmed II Or Sultan Muhammad Fatih – conqueror of Constantinople

He then immediately marched upon Toledo, the capital of Spain, and occupied that city against little resistance. He also conquered Córdoba. Mūsā himself arrived in Spain with a force of more than 18,000 in 712. And together the two generals occupied more than two-thirds of the Iberian Peninsula in the next few years. In 714 Mūsā and Ṭāriq summoned by the caliph back to Damascus, Where they both accused of misappropriation of funds and died in obscurity.

The Story about “Burn the Ships” –

In 711, The Great Muslim General Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed the Strait from northern Africa, With his army of about 7,000, Embarked on the conquest of Spain, establishing the foundation for a Kingdom that lasted nearly a millennium! Facing an army of 100,000 upon landing. He ordered his ships burned, so his troops could not lose heart and flee. In a sermon to his troops in before The Battle of Guadalete,

At the time of the conquest of Spain Tariq said: “Oh my warriors, whither would you flee? Behind you is the sea, before you, the enemy. You have left now only the hope of your courage and your constancy.”

This is all about Power of Iman or Faith that Muslims conqueror on every land, the situation only by the Power of Iman not by the power of the army, armor, weapons, etc. And Muslims faith is clearly if they die in battle then they called شُهَدَاء šuhadāʾ if they conqueror then called غازي‎, ġāzī.

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